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Full text of "Forestry [microform]"

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MICaOCafT HSOlUtlON TBI CHAtr 

(ANSI ond ISO TEST CHART No. 3) 




i /APPLIED IIVMGE Inc 



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rOR.ESTR.Y 



T 



SCHOOL OF MINING AND AG- 
RICULTURE, KINGSTON. ONT. 



FORESTRY EDUCATION. 

NkrrMlv* of th* Su .^Takcn lo Found m, School o* ForoMry 
M KIngalon. 

The interest taken by Queen's University in Forestry ilates back 
to the winter of l«<J4-.'i. I"or tight years the University has had the 
project of promotinp the scientific study of this subject under con- 
sideration, and it has urged the matter upon the attention if the ( )n- 
tario (iovernment since January, llMll. 

The old Forestry Association, which numbered Sir H. Joli dc 
Lotbiniere, Wm. Little, Es(|., Dr. A. T. Drummond and Dr. Robert 
Bell among its members, had (lied for want of enlightened public 
sympathy. In IH»4 the Royal Society of Canada took up the 
matter and brought over the iJirector of the Forestry Division of the 
United States, Professor B. E. Fernow. to lecture before its fellows 
and their friends. 

Included in the membership of the Royal Society are represent- 
atives of every university in Canada. One of the representatives of 
Queen's present was Dr. Goodwin, the Director of the School of Min- 
ing, and he became interested in the subject. In the ensuing winter 
he brought the matter before the Senate of Queen's University. His 
suggestion was that Professor Fernow be invited to Kingston to give 
a short course of lectures as a preliminary to more oxtended work. 
A committee consisting of Principal Grant, Dr. Goodwin and Prof. 
Short; was appointed to consider the proposition. 

This coinmittee, after careful discussion, was obliged to report 
that, notwithstanding the great importance of the subject. Queen's 
could not undertake out of her narrow income to carry out the sug- 
gestion. This report was submitted and adopted with reluctance; 
but at that time Queen's ha<l to face a decreasing income and an an- 
imal deficit. 

However, the matter was not dropped. In June, 1896, 
Dr. (kiodwin and Prof. Fernow were in correspondence, and 
a letter from Prof. Fernow, quoted elsewhere, indicates lines upon 
which the University could undertake the teaching of Forestry with 
profit to the public. Dr. Goodwin was revolving various projects, 
which included the linking of Forestry with the instruction in geol- 
ogy, engineering and uconomics, given in the University, and the in- 
stitution of a system of practical demonstration of the principles of 
Forestry. 



II IH.M, *.uh Ih.. cMcunraK.nHm „f ,1,0 .\li„i„,r of ,1,. hu.ri.r 
■" "■'»». Ih.- ( ,.„a,|,aM l„r.sln \^v,datu,„ was f„rnu-,l with |,™l- 
■l™n.;r> a, . ,„awa. m. A,s.,..ia,i a. ,,i,u.,l a, „„«■ In r. ,r . 

,r 1,%'" -""■":■ ""' ""■ ''■ ' '"■ •'' »■'■ -"'• ■" -I'ii-""' "• 

t K .. Irr r,™,ls ,,, „r..„ry. „,a„> „f ,„.• lar^.r l,„„l,.r,m.„. muI, as 

1 „ 7 ; """'"■ "^ '^"'""""'- -^l^- ''-"'■■""■ ^""1 "Huts. 

"I '!•>■ n:„„,I ,„ M„„„^, „...r.. Dr. A. T, I )r,u,m,„„,l, a triTs,.... „f 

Siiy: '""•"">■ =""! I'^'-"'""'..'!-^.....,.!,. Scl„,l„f 

fi. Ilu' a.,(„„„, ,„• |„„„ ,!„■ s„l,j.r, was „„c.- „>„r.. I,n,„^.|„ '.,,,.,r, 

r. u t,o„ „f |.„n..s,ry as a o.lioj;.. .•„„ ».. i„ (■.....la. Tl,,. Ii„ar,l uf 
<."V.T„„r. „| ,1„, vh,«,l ,„■ MiniMK \LM-..„ll„rc l->v,. ,1, 

>ro,„.|„ Vo,>.ss„r |.-,.n,ow. „„.„ Dir.-c,,,,- „f {u. Xcw Vnrk S 
■ n>K._o I -.restrv, ,„ Kin«s,„„ ,„ ,„,,„ a,„l mk. par. i„ a conW- 

im nf thiisc iMtm>su<l in liiri'siry. 

The circM.lar i„ which this ou,V,t..,„. was call,.,! was .iatd 1 (,h 
an™,v, an.l ,Icscril„ ,, „„. „„r,»,s.. „f „„. ,.„hcri„, as "tn c, s 

the h<.st ,„cans f„r ,hc pr,.s..rva,i,„ an,l renewal nf „„r forests f,'r 

h.se en,ls. FVof. henrnw s le,-tnrc. which was illustrate.l l.v 
.m-n. v,ews. was on "The p-„r,s,. Its Care, Its Tse. Its hlnetnie 
Its Management and k,pro,lncti,.n " 

;he Schrv.l of M„„„^, ,„„ „„,, ,„„si,,,.re,l ,1„, „,;,,„, ,„„ ,,„y , 
m- n-'e I ..restry .;, tl.eir scheme of e,l„ca,i„n : as appears f , h^ 

fnllovnu extract ,r,nn minntes ,,f nu-etin,. of |,,«r,l of , ;,H.er,,o, of 
theSchoolof Mmmtr. hcM Tan. i;tl, l'io| ■ iniorsot 

"Movr.l 1„. ,;, ^r. Macionnell. secon.Ie.l b> R. Crawford and 
carried, that the propose,! hill enlar.dn,. the s.-„pe of ,he Vhool of 
Mminc: to mcludo all hranches of electricni ,.„ .„„„,■ 
forestr. an,, all hranches of ^et^Sl-S''^;^,^ 
scence be s„l.m,t.e,l to ,|,e „„n. Afr, Harconrt -.,,,1 ■!, Attorn"' 
General for the.r ,.pn,i„n a. ,0 its necessitv. Tf necessnrv he r , 
i|Uired notice to h,. tjiven." ■■>^iss,irv rnc re- 

Thns as cirK as lannarv, 1!ini ,l,e Selir..! .,f ^r,•. ■ 
u.nn.la,in, ,„e teachin, of forestry .:^.:'::::^:V^:ZZZ 
Iv stirrtnc nr, public opinion on the snbject ' ^""«<^*"'^'- 

The lectt.re bv Trof. Fernow „n Tan. 71. ■0,. was a creal success 
an,l convmcci anv present who ba,l been ,Ionb,fnl ,1,.. time k„1 com 
for the advent of the forest engineer in Canada, it was weP ' tend 
e,I, ami there were n, the audience, besides the local L'niversitv men 

2 



1 



tile lion. .Ml. 
.W.I'., .'^. Kll»: 
IViiM-. I',M|.. .M.IM', 
II. ( amiilKil. .Sirrcian 
:iiiil ni;iii\ utln 



■l-iki- 



>M licit til III' iimiiil at 
iriliT til ailil aniitliLr — 

s t'lilliiu.s I Kfjiurt ol' 



Ihiroiiin, .\liniM,r,,i l-;,|i,c.,ii,,„. ||,ra,ii I aKm, lU , . 
ill, l.^'i; M.IM'., U. U. I),iii|,,,.v, M.IM'., |.., J. i:[ 
Dr. Iliiclicr. Uiiiniiiiiiii l.iiii,iiiulo(,'ist, .Mr. U, 
I llu- l»iiiniliiiin l)<|iartiii.iii ni iiiri-i.ti), 
liiall> imcnstiil in iclu, .ni.nal ami iruiiumic iiial- 
u-r>. .Mr. I'ni.sc, III nii.viny a vi.ti^ of tliaiil» to th. Uctlircr, .saiil 
that Oiurn's had Mviral l)ram-lu> 
rur.intiiiir .Muiitri'al, ami ii tvoiilil h 
lori'str). 

C>'; that nccaiiiui) .Mr. llari-mi 
Kingsli,!! ir/ii; , Jan. -n I'liil i : 

••llf wa» ifliKhlcd til s...- thai llu ,|iu.ti.Mi i.i lorwirv was re- 
cnvnn; attnitii.i at a niiivfr>ii>. (Jmvns. \k .,aiil, hail tlu- rq)iita- 
tii.il Ml iinil.Ttakinj; new |ir„j«-l.s, ami it wiinlil Ik^ a yrami thinj; for 
Uic .niinirv wr.- a «1„.,| ,.stal,li.slu.|| at Kinysiun. t aiia.la has 
rraclu-il tlu' tiiiif wluMi i,li,. nnist laiT the' ,|iii.sti.,i. ui hiiw lu-r lands 
art- to hi' ruthnbered."' 

< m the da> fulldwin^r a oiinfcriiuT on forestry was luld in tlif 
.Sniatf room iif > j imi's. whi-rc mkIi si in-it.s wi-rc di' iissnl as 
•■I'rofessional I -or. .-try, can it Ik- profiiahK practisfd in fuiada- ■ 
■■loreslr- ICdncatimi,- etc. .Xnu.ii^r ^n- s|i«ikcTs who ti„k part in' 
this discnssimi wcTi- I'rnfi.ssi.r Inrimw. Dr. l-k-tchcr (of Ottawa). 
Mr. K. ll.Cainpl)i-ll (l-ori-str> Divisinni, rrim-ip.. Cram, l)r Dvdr 
.Mr. Iraif i rqinsfiitinn the Kathhnn Ok), ami Dr. lioinlwin. 'Dr' 
l-k-tdKT stated that in his iipinion a .schiwl should be establishtd 
rrincipal Srant held that what was now wanted was a definite and 
■ontnuied aetioii towards pnifessi.inal forestrv. W hat we want is a 
nan imbue I with the spirit of I'rofessor lerimw a man wl 
gather definite infinination thron),diont Canada, and jfive li 
all centres in the coilnlrv 



vould 
give lectures at 
;<o jroverniiieiit can be expected to take 
action rcKardniK the establishment of a schiml until the people have 
been interested in the matter, lorestry would Ix; fullv di.scussed by 
gueen s Senate— the matter would not be dropped. I'rofessor Dyde 
ailvocated a series of lectures on forestry at yileen's next session ■ in 
these, he siiKj;esteil. .Superinteiiilent Stewart, of the Doniiiiion l-'or- 
estry Division, mi^dit assist, blvideiitly both the .Senate of ( )ueens 
and the visitors were fully alive to the 
^iniiimy. 

TiK followirij; extracts from letters received in answer to the cir- 
cular will serve to show the wa> in which the subject of forestry and 
tins method of brinjfintj it before the public were re'.'.,rded bv repre- 
sentati\ e men ; — 

Th, H-n .'^.vilney i'isher. .Minister of .\,;ricuhure, writes: "Cer- 
tainly th -e is no subject which re(|nires more careful study and 
3 



le importance of making a be- 



iliuuglitdil itivcstigaiiuii lliuii this ti> <la} in > anuila. I vviali >uti all 
Micci-»ii wiM tilt; lutL-tiiij;." 

I rum Hon. IC. J, UavU, Miiiiati. iit I rowii l^iius : "1 iiccU nol 
sa> tlwi 1 am vcr> inutli iiiicrisU'd in Ilit wurk 1 1 fonjiry, anU wc 
arc duiiig a deal in the rr'ivnicL- in that dirvctiun, and trust tliv 
tuturc will enable us tu increase uur useUilnesii ui thi& respect." 

iruiu E. \\. Kathbun, huj., llescruntu; 1 hupe many will 
avail themselves ut this uppurtunity lu hear I'rul. lernuw. 1 liavi: 
never met uiie whuse enthusiusin in lurestr) is iuunded un such an 
experience. ... 1 wish we cuuild hi ■ ■_• him give a lecture in ever) 
cuuuty ill Untariu. I am sure )<ju are niakni); nu mistake in ideiiti- 
lyiiitj the Schuul ui bcieiice with this impurtaiit branch.' 

l-rom Ihus. W . Oibsun, Lsq., Uireclur ul the Uureau ul Mines: 
"1 ;ihould Ik- jjlad if it were pussible iur me to be in attendance, as the 
subject is unc ol jjreat it not vital inipurtaiue to the agriculture, arts 
and industries of the Truvincc of Ontario and of (. aiiada as a whole. 
Vou have iii> cordial good wishes for the success of the 
moveniem in wl;ich >ou are engaged. " 

The following extract is from the letter of Ur. Kobert Dell, Dir- 
ector of the Utological Survey, who for many years had studied Can- 
adian forests and forest trees, and who has made many valuable con- 
tributions to the literature of the subject. He writes; "l hope the 
idea of establishing a college of forestry in Kingston will be realized, 
as it would do an immense good. ... it would be greatly to the 
credit of those who are the first to put it in a definite shape and make 
some kind of a beginning. " 

W. C Caldwell, Esq., .\l.r.l>., writes; 'l had hoped to be able 
to attend but have a bailly sprained ankle— 1 would have liked so 
much to have heard I'rof. I'ernow's exixirience and to have gotten a 
general idea on wha; lines the preservation of our forests are expect- 
ed to be carried out. t Ine thing we all know, that we cannot begin 
too soon to put a stop to the extravagant waste that is going on at 
present." 

VVm. Little, Esq., of Westmount, who has been a lifelong advo- 
cate of more conservative methods of lumbering, writes as follows ; 
"Few things would give me as much pleasure as to be with you to 
extend to Prof. Fernow my heartiest congratulations and acknow- 
ledgments for the intelligent work he has for so many years perform- 
ed in the service. . . . Indeed, 1 know of none to whom Amer- 
ica is so miirli indebteil for the fact that the great question is now be- 
ginning to be regarded with the importance it merits. To his scien- 
tific and practical knowledge of the subject and hii able and persist- 
ent labours to enlighten the public and to .nrouse an intelligent inter- 



I 



I my (ipMiiiiM, morn in- 



I 



I 



c»t in foremrj in Aniericii, thi> coiintr) n, 
ilrbtcU than lu an> miIht «;iit;lc hnior. 

l-fiurs 1)1 likf ifMiir wtTi- mim-.l Hum II. .n. i;. ||. Urc^MHi, u( 
Ittiawa, Thu». Suuiliwurili. i:v|., (Oirnlur i.l 1 iirislr) >, J. 11. Mi-- 
Uilliains, uf I'lurbor;, lion. J. K. Siratlon, lion. 1 lillunl J^i' n. 
Sir llcnri Joli di Ij.il.niicTi.-, ami .tliir*. 
I'our thing's an- plain in (litsc Icticr*; 

1. lilt ^^-i(cr^ riionnizc chat an irnpurtant initial >liii was he 
ing takni tuvva.,ls furistn iilncation. 

i. Thai llic Eubjix-I wa» one .j| iliu |,'riaii>i imixjrtancc. 
a. That till- Tufbi man hail liii-n cIiom'ii lo mirniluit; it lo the 
tfathi'rti'\; in Kingiitun, and 

I I hat the writers «iri' in hearty sviipa u • iih the iilra of e^- 
tabhshmj; a .School of lorestry in Kinnston. 

Dnriiig the vear.s Minn anil liinl. the snhjiei of tjovernment aiil 
to ( inlario liiiversilies was iiililer ilistns.suin. and the claims ui 
tjnein » were vinurously pressed liy Trincipal liranl. The negulia- 
lions viih the ({uvtniment were conducted liy him under constanl 
cimsiillaliun with the lion. W ni. Ilart.i, t hairinan of the .Minim; 
School Hoard. They urn.il the establishment of a ScIuhiI of horesi- 
ry in conncctiun with the .School of .Mining at Kingston. This was 
part of lh< scheme lor exleiidinj; the School of .Mining into a School 
of I'ract icieiicc. The l lovernmenl, recot;niziny the benelit to 
the luml . and other industries of the I'ruvince, sure to follow the 
work of a forestry school, agreed to help, and suggested that provis- 
ion should lje made for the School of I'orestry in the new buildings 
for which the.v had decii' ' to \otc the money. The CuvernmeiiL 
soon after as.sentcd to an ndment to t!:e act of incorporation pro- 
viding definitciv for the ti ...ing of forestry. The ( intario Legisla- 
ture was thus in .April, lliul, advised of the intention of the School 
of ilining to add forestry to its subjects. Indeed, the act (chap. 1 1. 
&c.) which was entitled An Act to Amend the Act respecting the 
School of Mining and Agriculture at Kingston" and which was as- 
sented to on the l,-)th of .\pril, lliiil, cuntaine'' the following explicit 
declaration : — 

"The saiil cor|X)ration is hereby authorized and empowered to 
establish and maintain classes for the training and education of stu- 
dents in electrical science, optics, forestry, and all branches of biolog- 
ical, geological and physical science." 

A definite promise of a .ijrant to aid in establishing a School of 
Forestry at Kingston was given by the Premier, who authorized the 
Hon. Mr. Harty to communicate the fact lo Principal (irant This 
Mr. Harty did in a letter dated March «th. Itflll, in which the <crant 
is promised as soon as the building in which forestry was to be pro- 



completed, ami the 
the department ul 



vided f(ir was ready. That huilding is now 
Hoard nr (lovenmrs havi divuu-d mie stort-y 
I'nresiry. 

The airiKT stinies tif the new buihlinj^s were laid on April ;loih 
nl dii^ year by Sir Sandlonl Memiiii^^ and the Hun. Richard ilar- 
court. < hi that occasion tlie Minister nf l-'dncation spokt* as follows 
iuhfhc report, ilay 1st, tlH)->j : 

"Air. llarcoiirt njted with especial satisfaction the work done 
liy <Jneen's in upeniny new tields of usefulness. The School of Ag- 
riculture established in connection with the L'niversity had been a 
distinct success. So also had been the School of Mining, and no small 
portion of the expansion of the niinin}; industry of ( intario had been 
due to the work of the School. . . . I'orestry was a most impor- 
tant subject in the ilevelopnieni of ( Mitario : he hoped that in the new 
building room would be made for this subject. In the opinion of ev- 
ery member of the ( lovernment none of the expenditures of the Pro- 
vince hail been more wisely made than those granted to the School of 
Mining and Agriculture. The (iovernnient sUxaI readv to assist 
them in la\ing the foundation-- of the important department of for- 
estry in tjueen's." 

In completing the new buildings full value has been given to 
those suggestions. The jdans of these buildings li, . e btxMi submitted 
Ui the (iovernnient and approved: and with the full knowledge of 
the (jovernme*' the ilepartment of forestry has been provided for in 
one of them. 

( )n .Nov. Vithy UHiI. Or. A. T. Drnmmond, a trustee of Queen's, 
submitted to the rremier and the Hon. 1^. J. Davis, Commissioner of 
Trown Lands, a nieniorandum setting forth the necessity for putting 
a forest reserve into the bancb i" the School of l'"orestr\ .so as "to 
give the borestry students the practical side of their work in the field 
during the spring and summer." 

In order to keep the subject before the public and pave the way 
for the opening of the School of l-orestry, a number of articles have 
l)een written for the public press ( see Queen's Quarterly, April. JuJy 
ami October, l!)ir,'.) by friends of the l'niversity and of the School 
of Mining. In these articles a scheme for starling educational work 
in forestry is wrought out in considerable detail, the nature of the in- 
struction -suitable tt) our conditions, the best way of securing stu- 
dents, and kindred subjects, being considered. 

It only remains to consider the practical steps necessary to es- 
tal)lish the study of the subject. Writing to Dr. (IfH)dwin on 1st 
June. lS!Hi, Prof. IVrnow showed how the scientific treatment of for- 
estry could Ik- combined with the educational forces at work in King- 
ston. He wrote : "In a school like yours there are three pJares that 






1 can sw wllert lectures mi horestry coillil lie imrciduceil. iiameK, as 
a part of surface t;eoloi;\ when the intlnences of forest cover on ero- 
sion, walerllow, climate, etc., can lie properly discusseil. The second 
place is in the conrse of enKineerinj;: when materials of construction 
are heinK discussed it would he ipiite proper to t'ive the students an 
iilea as to how w(Hid is produced. The third place would be in a 
cour.sc of lectures on general topics and especialJy economics, when 
the position of the forest industry and its retpiircnicnts can be more 
or less len^'thily discussed. . . These courses are. to be sure, 

not intended for the purpose of makint,' p-ofessional foresters. That 
is an entirely different matter and must be especially provided for. 

".As to vour second (|uestion. namelx-. whether it would he feas- 
ible to use ."lOn or lOdfl acres of lanil partly covered with timber, so as 
to work up a particular demonstration of (jooil forestry, that is of 
course (piite feasihJe. although it woidil he a still better object lesson 
if a piece of (rood forest land should be placed tuider management, 
when it could be shov\ii that b> the mere manner of cuttinff the crop 
a most desirable reiirodnction of new crop couhl be secured. 

".Mto^ether the movement for a more rational treatment of our 
forest resources seems to acipiire of late a mnmcntuni which a few- 
years affo was absent, and I expect that within the next decade or so 
considerable intniirv on the part of lumber concerns will arise for 
people instrtictcd in forestry-. " 

The suitability of KiURSton as a place in which to cstabjlish a 
.'School of I'orestry has been fully recofinized. as seen from .\|r. Har- 
court's speeches above referreil to. Queen's fnivcrsitv and the 
School of Minint; provide all the groundwork for forestry'edlication 
OnI\- the purely technical sidijects will have to be added, including 
forestry, s'lviculture. &c. The city is within easy reach of extensive 
areas of Jand suitable only for K'nnvinf; timber anil still fairh well 
timbered. \ot more than fifty miles awa\- is the l-:astcrn f)ntario 
Forest Reserve. Eastern Ontario, of which Kinnstcm is the educa- 
tional centre, has extensive hunlier interests and a larjje bodv of lum- 
bermen and millmen who are ver\ much alive to the necessity for new 
light on their industries. The School of :Minin); has been a pioneer 
in educational methods in minini; and has led the wa\ in adapting it- 
.self to ranadian conditions. Pioneer work of the most careful and 
cautious character is retpiired in forestry, and it can be safelv en- 
trusted to an educational body which has already shown itself adapt- 
ed to such work. 

fn May. IIKl'?. negotiations were begtui with Professor Feriiow- 
and arrangements were finally made for him to deliver a course of 
lectures on l-'orestry in January. Ilin;!. „„ such subjects as The For- 
est as a Resource. Forest Imliislries. Forest aroielli. Purest Crof: 
—7— 



I'roJiicliuii. Care ami ImprovemeHt of lite Forest Crop, Lumberman 
ami luiresler, Purest Economy or Business Melhoils, Principles of 
I'oresI I'olicy. and l-'nrcsl UtiliMtion. These lectures were project- 
ed as preliminary ami introductory to the inauguration of the School 
of Forestry next session by means of the promised aid of the Gov- 
ernment, with rejjular three and four year courses in forest engineer- 
ing. The scheme ajso includes educational work in lumbering cen- 
tres such as Ottawa. Renfrew. I'einbroke, Mattawa. Parry Sound, 
liyng Inlet. Ileseronto. l'etcrlx)ro. etc.. so as to reach out to those who 
are not able to come to Kingston. 

Here, then, is a large body of evidence which shows conclusivelv 
that the .subject of forestry education has been carefully ccjnsidcred 
and prepared for by (Jucen's L'uiversity and the School of .Mining, 
the preparation extending over a period of eight years. 

To sum up: Since IM!!") Queen's L'niversity and the School of 
Mining have been agitating for the introduction of forestry education 
into Canada. It has been discussed by them publicly on the platform 
and in the press. The School of Mining has paid the expenses of 
lectures on forestry delivered at Kingston, and has been encouraged 
by the sympathy and support of prominent men throughout Ontario. 
The promise of the ( )ntario (iovernment has been given to assist in 
establishing a School of l-'orestry in Kingston, and an act has been 
passed by the ( )ntario Legislature empowering the Schotjl of Mining 
to teach forestry. During this whole period no other Canadian Uni- 
versity or Schoosl of Practical Science has. so far as known, taken any 
active measures to establish a Schou-l of Korestrv. 

VVM. H.\RTV, 
Chairman of the Board of Governors. 

The School of .Mining and Agriculture, 
Kingston. Jan. l.'tth. l!M)y.